CRT

CRT

CRT is a Monte Carlo program for the calculation of radiation scattered and/or emitted by interstellar dust grains. Several dust models are included in the program or (in the case of grains at an equilibrium temperature) can be defined using external files. The program can handle cloud models with spherical symmetry and cylinder symmetry, or one can define a general three-dimensional cloud using a 3D cartesian grid.

References:

  • Juvela M., Padoan P. (2001) Dust emission from inhomogeneous interstellar clouds: Radiative transfer in 3D with transiently heated particles, A&A 397, 201
  • Juvela M. (2005) Efficient Monte Carlo methods for continuum radiative transfer, A&A 440, 531

Topics:

Input files

The initialization file (‘ini-file’) contains various parameters that can be used to scale the cloud model (e.g., size and density), specifies the dust species included, sets various options that affect the way calculations are carried out, and specifies output files that are to be written. The name of the ini-file must be given on command line, e.g.,

CRT my.ini

The file consists of lines which start with a keyword followed by one or more arguments. Comment lines starting with # are ignored.

Ini-file

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

^

A

  • abundance filename Specified a file that contains, cell by cell, relative abundances for the dust component that was last specified with the keyword dust. For a 1D cloud this is an ascii file with two columns: the index of the cell (running index starting with 1) and the relative abundance. In the case of a 3D cloud the file is a binary file containing one 4 byte floating point number for each cell. The file does not start with the dimensions of the cube but only contains as many floats as there are cells. If all relative abundances are set to 1.0, the result will be the same as when the abundance keyword is not used.

  • ascii With this option program will save results – spectra and (for grains at an equilibrium temperature) dust temperatures to text files. See description of temperature files and spectrum files.

B

  • bgpackets Number of photon packages sent from background per iteration and frequency.

  • binary Select binary format for output files. See description of temperature files and spectrum files.

C

  • cellpackets Number of photon packages sent from the dust medium per iteration and frequency.

  • centreweight float (1D clouds only) Weighted distribution of initial positions of photon packages created inside the cloud volume

    • <-100000: normal distribution but excluding emission from those parts of the cells where optical depth to closest cell boundary exceeds 15. Requires that the program was compiled with the option WITH_REFERENCE_FIELD
    • -999…-90: same number of packages sent from each shell, distribution within shell is normal
    • -90…-10: normal spatial distribution p(r)~r^2
    • > -10: spatial probability distribution p(r)~r^float
  • clip float Ignore cells with density below the given limit (in raytracing and when temperatures are updated).

  • cloud1d/cloud2d/cloud3d filename Specifies the name of the file containing description of the cloud model

  • constantabundance Tells the program to assume that all dust abundances are constant throughout the cloud (=1!), so that one does not have to allocate large arrays for optical depths and the asymmetry parameter. Currently works only with onlyscattering.

  • coredirection gamma Weighting of angular distribution of photon packages send inside the cloud

    • gamma<-99: normal isotropic distribution
    • -99<gamma<-10: preferentially towards closest cell boundary, p(theta)~exp(-theta) with angle theta from the shell normal
    • -10<gamma: preferentially towards cloud centre, p(theta)~exp(-gamma*theta) with angle theta from the direction of the cloud centre

D

  • density f1 f2 A linear scaling is applied to densities initially read from the cloud definition so that values will fit in the interval [f1,f2]. If second number is negative densities are multiplied directly with factor f1.

  • diffuse [f1] Diffuse emission is read from the file diffuse.data. The file should contain the diffuse emission in each cell and at each frequence in units of photons emitted from 1 cm^3 in one second in 1Hz band. Unlike in emitted.data and absorbed.data, the frequency axis runs slowest [(x=0,y=0,z=0,f=0), (1,0,0,0) … (NX-1,0,0,0), (0,1,0,0) … (NX-1,NY-1,NZ-1,0), (0,0,0,1) … (NX-1,NY-1,NZ-1,NFREQ-1)]. The emission read from the file is scaled by factor f1 (default=1.0).

  • direction theta phi Specify the direction towards the observer for spectrum calculations. theta is an angle from positive z-axis towards positive x-axis and phi rotation around z. Angles are given in degrees.

  • dsc [filename] Use a tabular scattering function instead of relying on the Henyey-Greenstein approksimation. Requires file DSC.dat in the data directory that is specified at compile time or overwritten by the option rootdir. The name of the file can also be given after the dsc keyword. The file must still reside in the same ‘root directory’ (that may be different from the current working directory!).

  • dust filename Gives the name of a file defining a dust species (see CRT definition of dust model). At the moment an ini-file can contain keyword dust a maximum of 10 times, i.e., define 10 different dust species to be included in the model.

  • DustFromDustem Use DustEM for dust emission calculations. Requires GRAIN_.DAT and GRAIN.DAT files in the DustEM les_DAT directory.

  • dumpincomingphotons With this option a file incoming.dump is created, containing the estimated intensity for each cell in cgs-units. The intensity is calculated based on the total number of photons that do enter the cell, i.e., it is the average incoming intensity on the border on each cell (not intensity at the centre of the cell – this may be slightly different, if the cell is optically thick). If cell contains a discrete source, those photons are also calculated so that actually incoming.dump reflects the total influx of energy into the cell. See also Other CRT files.

E

F

  • frequencyfile string Name of a file containing list of frequencies used in the simulation. This is an ascii file containing a list of frequencies, one per line. The first line already contains the first frequency and not the number of frequencies.

  • forcedfirstscattering Use forced first scattering method to improve sampling of scattered flux in optically thin models. Works at least when keyword onlyscattering is used.

G

  • gridlength f1 Defines the physical size [pc] of the cloud: for 1D model this is the radius of the cloud and for 3D models the size of an individual cell.

H

I

  • infinite Currently applicable only to 2D models, makes the cylinder infinite in length. This applies to the actual calculations but images (emission, scattered light) are still affected by the finite length of the model (= at non-zero inclination angles the intensity will not be correct for the lines-of-sight that cross either cap of the finite cylinder that one would have without this keyword).

  • inside x y z radius type arg scaling Define an internal radiation source. The position (x,y,z)is given in grid coordinates where for 1D and 2D clouds the radius 1.0 units and for 3D models the cell size is 1.0 units. The coordinates (0.0,0.0,0.0) correspond to the centre of a 1D cloud, symmetry axis at the bottom of a 2D cylindrical cloud (at cloud surface), and a corner of a 3D cloud (the corner cell corresponds to coordinates 0.0-1.0 along each axis). The the source radius is given in cm. The last parameter scaling is used to scale the intensity. Default value is scaling=1.0. The type can be one of the following:

    • blackbody, followed by arg giving the black body temperature
    • table. The argument arg is the name of a text file containing intensity values: first line gives the number of frequency values and each of the following lines contains one frequency value [Hz] followed by the corresponding intensity value [erg/s/sr/hz].
  • inside x y z theta phi xi radius type arg scaling As previous but with an anisotropic source. Radiation leaves from the source towards direction (theta,phi) within a cone with opening angle xi (=angle from the symmetry axis to the border of the cone).

  • iterations # Sets number of iterations made during one run

J

K

L

  • libfreq n1 f1 n2 f2 ... Specify reference frequencies (f1, f2,…) for the library method. The parameters n1, n2, … are the number of intensity bins used at the corresponding reference frequency.

  • libload prefix Load existing library files with the given prefix and use them in the spectrum calculations.

M

N

  • nosolve Dust temperatures and dust emission is not calculated. However, if file emitted.data exists, it will be read and used in the simulations (provided that argument of cellpackets is positive). The option can be used if one has calculated the emission from each cell by other means, and only wants to do the radiative transfer part in order to either estimate the intensity in different parts of the model cloud (e.g., together with the keyword dumpincoming) or to calculate the spectra observed from such a model.

O

  • onlyscattering Do not solve dust temperatures. Faster in case only scattered intensity needs to be calculated.

  • opacity filename Write out a binary file of cell opacities (absorption + scattering). The binary file starts with two integers (4 bytes), the number of cells and the number of frequencies (= number of frequencies in the simulation). These are followed by floating point numbers (4 bytes) that give cell opacity per ‘grid unit’ (cloud radius in 1d models, cell size in 3d models). Opacities are listed for all cells and all transitions, the values of one cell being consecutive. The order of the cells is the same as in the cloud definition. This option can be used to produce a file that, through Python script CRT2Cppsimu.py, can be used as input for Cppsimu runs (see Cppsimu option Cppsimu Ini-file#C).

  • opencl wgs # GPU/OpenCL accelerated calculations of scattered light. The first argument is the batch size (how many rays are used in a single GPU kernel call). The program will use either CPU (second argument equal to 0) or the first GPU (second argument equal to 1). The keyword is only available in development version (and the syntax may change).

  • outcoming ... Specify how outcoming scattered flux is stored. Examples are:

    • outcoming 10 0.2 5.0 * * *: Store 10×10 element array of intensities, each pixel corresponding to 0.2 times the ‘grid unit’. The intensities are calculated counting photon coming out from the cloud surface within a 5 degree cone toward the observer. The plane is perpendicular to the direction toward the observer (see direction). The ‘grid unit’ is either the cloud radius (in case of a 1D or 2D cloud) or the cell size (3D cloud). For example, if the the product of the first two parameters equals 2.0 (as in the example), the resulting map will exactly cover the area of a 1D cloud (diameter = 2 x radius = 2.0 grid units). If calculations are done with the ‘peel-off’ option, the opening angle of the cone must still be given, but will not be used.
    • outcoming 20 -1 0.3 * * * Store outcoming intensity as the function theta from the direction of the observer, there are 20 bins for cos(theta). Outcoming photons are registered only if projected distance from cloud centre is below 0.3 in grid units (i.e., for a 1D model distance less than 0.3 times the cloud radius). The second parameter not used but must be negative (separates this from the previous case).
  • outside ... Specifies the external radiation source. Examples are

    • outside blackbody 5000.0 1e-5 5000K blackbody background diluted by a factor of 1e-5
    • outside isrf2 0.5 * * * normal interstellar radiation field scaled by 0.5 (isrf = Mathis et al. 1983, A&A 128, 212, isrf2 = Mezger, Mathis, Panagia 1982, A&A 105, 372, isrf3 = Draine & Anderson 1985, ApJ 292, 494
    • outside table BISRF.dat 1.0 read intensities from external table (number of frequencies followed by one frequency and intensity per line{{ units Hz and erg/cm2/sr/s/Hz)}}
    • outside 180.0 0.0 10.0 isrf2 2.0 source in direction theta=180 and phi=0.0 degrees, opening angle 10 degrees (=diameter on the sky 20 degrees and source is at an infinite distance), interstellar radiation field with twice the normal intensity
    • outside 0.01 0.01 179.99 healpix wham_velocity.fits 1.0
      • sky brightness given by an all-sky healpix file (a single frequency!), the first two numbers give the rotation of the sky wrt the cloud coordinate system (not relevant for 1D models) and the third number should be ~180 (=full sky).
      • It also is possible to weight the sampling according to the intensity and direction on the sky. You can add three numbers to indicate the weighting with intensity (probability of emission of photon packages is proportional to intensity^number), weighting with direction (probability proportional to (1+cos(angle))^number), and the minimum probability of an healpix pixel relative to the mean probability. The angle is by default measured so that largest weight is given for emission from behind the cloud. However, the preferred direction can be specified with two additional parameters that by default correspond to the arguments of the direction keyword.
      • The following line weights directly relative to the square root of intensity and proportionally to (1+cos(angle))^2 with the direction measured from positive x-axis (theta=90, phi=0). The minimum weight is limited not to be less than 0.001 times the average weight of a healpix pixel. outside 0.01 0.01 179.99 healpix test.fits 1.0 0.5 2.0 1.0e-3 90.0 0.0
    • Note that the number of photons packages for isotropic sources is defined with the keyword bgpackets and for non-isotropic sources with sourcepackets.

P

  • peeloff At each position of scattering calculate separately the intensity that is scattered towards observer and does exit the cloud without being extincted. Reduces significantly the noise of computed maps of scattered radiation. May require use of the keyword onlyscattering .

  • perspective x y z Write spectra for an observer inside the model volume. The three parameters are the location of the observer in grid units. By default this results in a 2D map in cylinder projection where the number of longitude and latitude points is defined by the keyword points. The map covers full 360 degrees in longitude. The latitude range is defined by an requirement that the pixels are square at latitude zero. Thus, the second argument of points should be less or equal to half of the second parameter.

  • photonlimit float Simulation of a photon package is stopped once it’s size has decreased by the given fraction. Works at least together with the keyword onlyscattering. The default value is 1e-14.

  • points nx ny Specify the number of output spectra produced. There will be nx \times ny spectra computed at intervals defined with the keyword step.

  • prefix string Prefix for output file names.

Q

R

  • random mzran seed Selection of a random number generator and initialization with selected seed number (float). The recognised generators are called rand (system generator drand48), mzran with synonym pseudo, HD (Hoerman & Deflinger; with integer seed), TLE (Tezuka & L’Ecuyer), MTW (Marsenne twister), and quasi (quasi random number generator, not recommended!)

  • reset Reset random number generators after each iteration. May be needed if one wants to use ngaccel.

  • rootdir directory Specify a directory for auxiliary files (apart from the default one). This directory contains, e.g., the dust properties for calculations with the Li & Draine dust model.

S

  • savetemp suffix Save computed dust temperatures to file with the name consisting of the name of the dust and of the given suffix. This applies only to calculations with models with equilibrium temperature dust. For 1d models, when the keyword ascii is used, the result is a simple ascii file (the second column are the temperatures). Otherwise the result is a binary file with one 4 byte float per cell.

  • scattercore gamma Weighting of the angular distribution of scattered photon packages (gamma<-9.9: no weighting, gamma>-9.9: use modified probability distribution p(theta)~exp(-gamma*theta) for directions of scattered photons; theta is angle from the direction of the cloud centre).

  • sourcepackets Number of photon packages sent from discrete sources per iteration and frequency.

  • spectrum string Specifies what components are included in the computed spectra. The string may contain ‘E’, ‘S’, and/or ‘B’ for dust Emission, Scattered light and emission from the Background sky.

  • spelib prefix Calculation is used to produce library files for the included dust species with the given prefix. In the following runs the computed libraries can be loaded by using the keyword loadlib instead of spelib.

  • step float Gives the step (in parsecs) between the positions for which output spectrum is calculated.

  • superpeeloff Perform peeloff at each cell boundary (not recommended: usually detrimental to accuracy / runtime).

T

  • targetcore beta Weighting of spatial distribution of background packages entering the cloud.

    • beta<-90: same number of packages towards each annulus as defined by the radial discretization positions within the annuli are random in the normal manner
    • -90<beta<-10: normal case, distribution of impact parameters is p(d)~r -10<beta: weighted distribution, p(d)~r^beta
  • taus filename wavelength Save optical depths at given wavelength um to the named file for each sightline for which a spectrum was computed.

  • tdistributions prefix Dump temperature distributions for transiently heated grains. The resulting binary files will be named prefix.name_of_dust.Tdust. The format of the file is the following: three integers (4 byte each) giving the number of cells, grain sizes, and enthalpy bins, followed by the grain temperatures (one four byte float per each size and energy), followed by the relative number of grains in each enthalpy bin (one eight byte double for each cell, grain size, and enthalpy).

U

V

W

  • wavelength a b Restrict calculation of the output spectra to wavelength range [a,b] given in units of um.

X

Y

Z

Dust model

Dust for calculations of scattered light

The program CRT uses different types of dust models. The simplest dust models are used for calculations of scattered light and they do not include calculation of dust temperatures or dust emission. These dust models can be specified entirely using a text file, e.g.:

  simple                # required !  
  1.0e-8                # number density relative to hydrogen  
  1.0e-8                # grain radius [cm]  
  7                     # number of frequencies
  # [ freq g=<cos theta> Qabs  Qscat ]
      1e10    0.6        2.0   0.0
      1e11    0.6        2.0   0.0
      1e12    0.6        2.0   0.0
      1e13    0.6        2.0   0.0
      1e14    0.5        2.0   0.0
      1e15    0.6        2.0   0.0
      1e16    0.6        2.0   0.0

The name of the above file is then set in the ini-file using the keyword dust. The file starts with the keyword simple and is followed by the grain abundance and grain radius (used for computation of absorption and scattering cross sections). These are followed by the number of frequencies for which the dust parameters are defined. Each of the following lines list a frequency, and for that frequency the value of the asymmetry parameter g and the absorption and scattering efficiencies, Q(abs) and Q(scat).

A single dust species with an equilibrium temperature

For this dust in each cell an equilibrium temperature is calculated and, consequently, dust emission spectrum can be calculated. The dust definition is contained entirely in an external text file. Here is an example:

  eqdust        # required
  1.0e-11       # abundance
  0.12e-4       # grain radius [cm]
  # frequencies
  243
  1.4979e+11 0.000 1.1380e-05 2.0100e-13
  2.0079e+11 0.000 1.3380e-05 3.0100e-13
  2.9979e+11 0.000 1.5380e-05 4.0100e-13
  3.1754e+11 0.000 1.7260e-05 5.0480e-13
  3.3635e+11 0.000 1.9360e-05 6.3550e-13
  3.5630e+11 0.000 2.1730e-05 8.0000e-13

The format is the same as for the ‘simple’. In the ini-file the keyword frequencyfile points to a file that lists the actual frequencies used in the calculations and dust parameters are interpolated to those frequencies. Obviously, the definition of dust parameters should cover the whole computed frequency range.

Dust with a size distribution but grains at an equilibrium temperature

So far we have not have any need for such dust models. In an ini-file one can include at least ten different dust species so that a crude size distribution can be implemented using several ‘eqdust’ dust species.

Transiently heated grains

Note: the documentation below is partly outdated. One can use with CRT the same files as used by the SOC programme. Please refer to the documentation given for SOC .

For transiently heated particles some grain properties are currently hardwired in the code. Therefore, it is only possible to use some pre-defined dust models. One of these is the Li & Draine model (2001). The dust file is specified in the normal manner using the dust keyword. Here is an example

   set_ld_graphite
   prefix june_ldg
   dt 1.0e-6
   density 1.0e-11
   nsize -10 50.0e-8 2400.0e-8
   bins 250 70.0 450.0

The keywords in this file are:

  • set_ld_graphite= Li & Draine (‘ld’) graphite grains; other possibilities include set_ld_silicate and set_ld_pah
  • prefix = prefix for file names used in output and some auxiliary files
  • dt = time interval used in the solution of temperature distributions (exact value is unimportant but a bad choice can increase run times or lead to numerical instability)
  • density = grain density relative to hydrogen
  • nsize = number of separate grain size intervals; here 10 bins between 50e-8 and 2500e-8 cm
  • bind = number of temperature bins: 250 intervals; upper limit 70K for the largest and 450K for the smallest grains

Dust is now discretized into separate size intervals and for each size interval and cell we have a separate distribution of dust temperatures. The computations are much more time-consuming than when one could assume a single equilibrium temperature. Note that absorption and scattering cross sections are read directly from files downloaded from B. Draine’s homepage. These must be available when program is run, and are usually located in a directory specified at compile time. However, the name of the directory can also be set in the ini-file using the keyword rootdir.

Modifications of the original model

The original (hard coded) model for transiently heated particles can be adjusted in several ways.

  • adjust has two parameters, first scales the number grain density calculated from the original model, the second argument tilts the size spectrum (on logarithmic scale): adjust 0.7 0.2. The previous decreases the total dust mass (for the present component) by 30% and makes the slope (dN vs grain size) more shallow, i.e., increases the relative amount of large grains.

  • auxfile instructs the program to read a file [um Qabs], that will be used to replace the original absorption curve (between some frequencies). One could add a line auxfile file.dat and also a line tag A. Here tag specifies the interval replaced (Qabs replaced directly, Qsca multiplied with Qsca_new/Qsca_old). For example, tag A stands for interval 7.6-25µm.

  • growth tells the program to read a separate file containing columns [ grain_size [nm], factor ] that is used to modify the original grain size distribution. The second parameter defines the change in total dust mass. growth curve.txt 2.0 would mean that the original grain numbers (per size interval) are multiplied with the factors found in the file curve.txt. The final grain numbers are normalized so that the total dust mass is twice the original one.

  • emissivity_step has three parameters. For example, emissivity_step 10.0 100.0 2.0 means: increase emissivity for all grains larger than 10nm, for all wavelengths above 100um, by a constant factor 2.0.

  • emissivity_slope has three parameters, e.g. emissivity_slope 10.0 100.0 2.0 means: increase emissivity for all grains larger than 10nm, for all wavelengths above 100um, by a factor (lambda/lambda~0)2.0.

  • emissivity_bump a dlog(a) k(size) scale lambda dlg(lambda) k(emissivity) introduces into the size distribution a bump, the centre is at given grain size a [nm], the width of the bump is specified on logarithmic scale by dlog(a){{, {{k is the peak multiplicative increase in the grain numbers, scale is the scaling of the total dust mass, lambda is the bump centre in wavelength [um], and dlg(lambda) the width on logarithmic scale. The last parameter is the peak multiplication at wavelength lambda. For example, the line emissivity_bump 100.0 2.0 1.4 1.0 300.0 2.1 4.0 would increase number of grains around 100nm by a maximum factor of two. The bump is gaussian on logarithmic scale, the standard deviation of log(a) being 1.4. The total dust mass is kept constant. Emissivity is increased by a maximum factor of four around 300um. The width of the bump corresponds to log(lambda) standard deviation of 2.1.

  • multiplysize moves the whole size distribution without affecting the (dN,a) slope. For example, multiplysize 2.0 would increase the size of all particles by a factor of two.

Cloud model

Spherically symmetric models

Model is defined using a separate file that is named using the cloud1d keyword of the ini-file. A spherically symmetric cloud consists of co-centric shell and we need to specify only the radie and densities of the shells. Unlike in the line transfer program Cppsimu the values can not be given via analytical formulae. Values must be listed shell by shell as in the following example:

  # number of shells
    10
  # [ outer radius, density ] n ~ 1/r
  0.25  0.8
  0.40  0.7
  0.52  0.6
  0.65  0.5
  0.78  0.4
  0.85  0.3
  0.90  0.2
  0.94  0.15
  0.97  0.1
  0.99  0.05
  1.00  0.05

The radiae (first column) are relative values and the last value should be 1.0. Densities can be re-scaled using in the ini-file the keyword density. In CRT the centre coordinates of a spherical cloud are (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) and the positions of for example internal sources are defined in coordinates where the cloud radius is 1.0 units.

Cylinder symmetric models

These can be specified still using ascii files. The first two lines contain the number of radiae and number of planes. These are followed, one value per line, by the outer radiae of the cylindrical cells (the last one should be 1.0) and the coordinates of the upper boundaries of layers that are used to divide the cylinder into cells perpendicular to its symmetry axis. The cylinder starts implicitly at 0.0 and only the coordinates for the upper borders of the layers are specified, the last number thus giving the height of the cylinder (relative to the radius that is assumed to be 1.0 units). These are followed by the density values, one number per line, starting at the bottom of the cylinder so that the radial cell index runs faster that the index of the planes.

In CRT the coordinates (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) correspond to the bottom of the cylinder (on the surface of the model), at the symmetry axis, the radius of the model is 1.0 units, and the height as specified above. The centre of the model is thus (0.0, 0.0, height/2.0). These coordinates are used when placing for example internal sources. The physical size is given with the keyword gridlength (see the documentation for the ini file).

Three-dimensional clouds

A 3D cloud is defined using a simple binary file. File starts with three integers (3 x 4 bytes) giving the cloud dimensions as cells (NX,NY,NZ). The following values (4 byte floats) give the density for each of the cells. The x-coordinate runs fastest, i.e., the consecutive numbers correspond to cells with indices (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (2,0,0), …, (NX-1,0,0), (0,1,0), (1,1,0), …, (NX-1, NY-1, NZ-1).

In CRT the the size of a cell is 1.0 units along all three axes. The first corner is at (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) and the cell at the corner extends over coordinate values 0.0-1.0. For example, If a source is placed at the centre of the model volume, its coordinates (see keyword inside) are (0.5NX, 0.5NY, 0.5*NZ).

Output files

Dust temperature

Dust temperatures are saved only for grains at an equilibrium temperature (not transiently heated), when the keyword savetemp is used. The file name consists of the name of the dust component and a suffix given as the parameter of the savetemp keyword. In case of 1D models, when also the keyword ascii is used, the result is a text file with rows containing cell index, dust temperature [K]. For 3D models the temperatures are always written to binary files. The file simply contains a temperature value (4 byte float) for each cell.

Dust emission spectra

When the keyword binary is used in the ini-file, the spectra will be written to a binary file prefix.spectra. File starts with three integers (4 bytes each): number of RA-positions, number of DEC-positions, and number of frequencies. These are followed by the listed frequency values (4 byte floats,). For each spectrum the file contains first the x- and y-offsets [pc] (4 byte floats) that are followed by the intensity values [Jy/sr] for each of the computed frequencies (4 byte floats).

If keyword ascii is used instead of binary, the spectra are written to an ascii file. The output file consists of lines with x-offset [pc], y-offset [pc], frequency [Hz], wavelength [um], intensity [cgs], intensity [Jy/sr], optical depth. Note that all values (different positions and frequencies) will be written to this one file. Above the offset x increases right (i.e., opposite to the direction in which longitude coordinate would increase).

Scattered light

Scattered flux can be included in calculated spectra. However, it is usually better to calculate that separately either as a function of the angle from the direction of the observer or as a 2-dimensional map towards selected direction. The keyword outcoming must always be used when scattered intensity is computed. The scattered intensity is automatically saved to a text file outcoming.dat. If scattered intensity is computed for a 2D grid (see also keyword direction) the file contains lines x-offset, y-offset, I(freq1), I(freq2) …. If intensity is calculated only as a function of angle theta from the direction of the observer the lines will be cos(theta), I.

Other output files

Depending on the run, the program CRT may write several files, some of which may be usefull for furher analysis or for checking that what was calculated was what one wanted to calculate.

  • absorbed.data Binary file containing the number of photons absorbed in each cell (N~cells~ x N~freq~ 4 byte floating point numbers, all values for one cell are consecutive). Note: the actual values are currently the number of photons divided by the cloud volume and multiplied with 10 20 !
  • bg_intensity.dump The text file contains two columns, the frequency and the total intensity of the isotropic background used in the simulations (cgs units)
  • emitted.data Similar binary file as absorbed.data, but containing the number of photons emitted from each cell during one iteration. Values are: the number of photons emitted from 1cm^3 volume, in one second, in 1Hz band, and scaled with a factor 10^20 .
  • incoming.dump Binary file containing incoming intensity for each cell (N~cells~ x N~freq~ 4 byte floating point numbers, all values for one cell are consecutive). The unit is erg/s/cm 2 /Hz/sr. File is written only if keyword dumpincomingphotons is used.